新:使用 Ledger Recover 轻松恢复钱包,此服务由 Coincover 提供

使用入门

什么是秘密恢复短语?

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初阶
秘密恢复短语是存储在给定加密钱包中的所有私钥的备份。
要点总结:
— Your Secret Recovery Phrase is the backup of all the private keys stored in a given crypto wallet. It allows you to recover all of your blockchain addresses, even without the original crypto wallet.

— This 12-24 word phrase must be kept secure- it’s vital to never enter it into a computer or smartphone and to never share it with anyone as it allows anyone to restore your entire wallet.

— Your Recovery Phrase is the most sensitive piece of data: It’s essential that you’ve written it down correctly, otherwise you may lose access to your wallet.

加密货币的本质是自主保管;与传统银行不同,您拥有对资产的所有权。 然而,责任亦随之而来。 保护您的私钥是一回事,但保持对钱包的访问权限是另一回事。 如今,有无数的休眠比特币钱包——所有这些钱包的所有者都无法再访问其账户。

正因此,为您的加密钱包进行备份尤为重要。 天知道您的备份可能面临哪些风险,从丢失、被盗到自然灾害。

那么,如何有效备份您的加密钱包呢?

Well, the answer lies with something you may be familiar with if you already have a crypto wallet: your Secret Recovery Phrase.

In short, it lets you restore an entire crypto wallet on a new device or interface—along with all of the accounts associated with it. But there’s a bit more to it than that. Let’s dive in:

什么是秘密恢复短语?

秘密恢复短语(SRP),也称为种子短语或助记词,是一组单词的集合,可让您恢复整个加密钱包。 这是您在设置钱包时,钱包向您提供的 12-24 个英文单词。 如果您正确地遵循了步骤指示,那么您应该已在某处按顺序记录下了这些单词。

This simple sequence is similar to a master key for your private keys. To explain, your wallet uses it to generate private keys for multiple networks and accounts. This is how you can restore the entire wallet with that single Secret Recovery Phrase.

现在您了解了它是什么,那它有什么用途呢?

秘密恢复短语有哪些用途?

A Secret Recovery Phrase is simply for providing a backup of your wallet should it become unusable via theft or destruction. Perhaps your wallet got stuck in the washing machine. Or perhaps you were relying on a software wallet on a laptop that doesn’t work any longer. Alternatively, you might just want to change which wallet you use.

In these cases, a Secret Recovery Phrase gives you the option to restore the entire wallet on another device or interface. To explain, your crypto is not in your wallet itself, but on the blockchain. The wallet simply protects the private keys connecting you to those blockchain addresses.  As long as your recovery phrase is the same, the calculation of the private keys will always have the same result—giving you access to all of the accounts connected to that mnemonic.

设置新钱包时,通常会为您提供“设置为新钱包”或“通过恢复短语还原”的选项。 选择后者会让您填写 12-24 个助记词,以在新设备或界面上恢复整个钱包。 这意味着即使您原来的钱包提供商不再存在,您仍然可以将您的助记词输入另一个兼容的钱包以恢复您的访问权限(尽管出于安全原因您可能希望避免这种情况)。

But before we get there, let’s explore how a Secret Recovery Phrase works, and how it’s able to do this.

秘密恢复短语的工作原理如何?

It’s important to note your recovery phrase doesn’t start off as a set of words. It’s actually just a translated version of a long string of numbers called the entropy. However, the entropy is so long that it’s very impractical to record. To solve this problem, Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 39 (BIP-39) introduced a standardized method to translate that long number into something more easily recorded by a human. Using this method, there are a total of 2048 English words that your Secret Recovery Phrase may use to translate the entropy. 

此时,您可能想知道:如果它只是冗长熵数的直译,那么何以保障秘密恢复的安全性呢? 其实,要点在于熵的产生方式。 也就是说,熵数必须非常的长并且高度随机,否则就有可能被人猜到。 只要熵是随机选择的并且由超过 128 位组成,它就足够安全,任何人或计算机都无法将其破解。

Ledger 秘密恢复短语讲解

Ledger 设备使用随机数生成器(RNG)来生成熵,以使熵数极度随机。 此外,所有 Ledger 设备都使用 24 词恢复短语,该短语可转换为 256 位熵,其长度足够长,以至于无法猜测该组合。

在 Ledger 设备上发起其生成过程如下:

  1. 将您的 Ledger 设备开机。
  2. Set a personal PIN code
  3. 您的设备会生成一个很长的随机数,也称为:熵
  4. The entropy is translated into your Secret Recovery Phrase using BIP-39
  5. The Secret Recovery Phrase is displayed on your Trusted Display

If you ever receive a device containing a pre-completed Secret Recovery Phrase or PIN code, do not use the device! It may mean that the device is pre-owned, or possibly even tampered with. Under these circumstances, contact Ledger customer support for more information.

如何保护秘密恢复短语的安全?

So, now you know that your Secret Recovery Phrase is a backup to all of your crypto wallet. This also means that if anyone else can get their hands on your set of 24 words, they can access your cryptocurrencies. As such, it’s extremely important to keep your Secret Recovery Phrase secure. So what can you do to protect it?

确保您以正确的方式将其记录

Firstly, you want to make sure you write down or record your Secret Recovery Phrase correctly. Any error in spelling or word order would cause a different set of addresses to be generated. To lend a hand with this, Ledger has developed a dedicated application. The Recovery Check app lets you check if the recovery phrase you wrote down matches the one protecting your device. Easy!

将其离线保存

Next, you should never store your SRP on cloud-based services. If the server is hacked, your Secret Recovery Phrase—and therefore your wallet—could become compromised. Similarly, you should never transact while using software wallets on devices using shared wifi networks. You wouldn’t want to share your Secret Recovery Phrase with everyone on the airport wifi, would you? Well, keeping a copy of your SRP on an internet-connected device is asking for exactly that. 

将您的秘密恢复短语记录在物理实体上—可以使用硬件钱包设备或书写在纸张上—都是更好的方案。

At this point it’s important to mention that you should never restore your hardware wallet’s Secret Recovery Phrase into a software wallet. To explain, the entire point of a hardware wallet is that it generates your Secret Recovery Phrase completely offline. This means not even the most sophisticated digital spyware could see those words. If you enter that same secure recovery phrase into a wallet that doesn’t have those same qualities, you risk exposing it. In short, if you import your hardware wallet into a software wallet, your secret recovery phrase might be vulnerable to online threats.

将其存放在远离小偷、事故和自然灾害的地方

To follow, you should also bear in mind where you store your SRP physically. If someone steals your SRP sheet, they can easily access your wallet. Thus, no one should know your secret hiding place—not your mom, not your wife, and certainly not your housemates. In the cases where you have no safe place to store your SRP, you may be interested in Ledger Recover. The paid optional service allows users to back up their Secret Recovery Phrases by fragmenting and distributing them to custodians. In short, this removes the burden of protecting your SRP at home.

Then, of course, sometimes losing your SRP is more of an accident. For example, what happens if your house burns down and your SRP is stored on a piece of paper inside it? To protect against these types of disasters, a great option is the BillFODL. This type of physical storage is very resistant to potential damage—and sleek at the same time.

切勿向任何人透露您的秘密恢复短语

当然,最后一条建议是切勿向任何人透露您的 24 词恢复短语 – 即使是 Ledger 也不例外。 我们绝不会要求您提供秘密恢复短语,其他任何人也都不该向您索要。 要谨记——您是自己资产的最后一道屏障。 不要放松警惕,因为坏人会试图通过社会工程学骗局诱导您向其透露自己的秘密恢复短语。 没有密钥,币就不属于您:任何能访问您秘密恢复短语的人,都能掌控您的所有密钥。

您的秘密恢复短语:您的钱包备份工具

那么,现在您已经对秘密恢复短语有了完整的了解;从其定义到其工作原理,再到如何有效地保护您自己的秘密恢复短语。 但这远不是您安全之旅的终点。 您才是自己秘密恢复短语的最终守护者。

Luckily, the Ledger ecosystem offers plenty of options to keep your Secret Recovery Phrase safe. Whether you want to check you’ve recorded the correct mnemonic, find a more permanent storage solution, or even use Ledger Recover, Ledger offers an option that works for you—without losing custody of your assets.

因为如果没有自主保管权的话,何谈加密货币呢?


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